Mrs. Burkhart's Class
Blood on the River Expanded Learning PDF (Entire Book)
Blood on the River 1-2 Links
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11. Mrs. Burkhart's Class Website
12. Pulley Notes, Pulley Video
13. Memory Tricks
Blood on the River 6-8 Links
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Blood on the River 3-5 Links
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3. Canary Islands, West Indies
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Blood on the River 9-11 Links
2.-7. Video (Old Point Comfort)
2. First landed at Cape Henry
3. Wanted to build at Old Point Comfort because they thought guns mounted there could prevent passage of hostile ships of the Spanish up the Jamestown River
4. Second Fort was called Fort George
6. 121 Years after they first landed in Virginia
Blood on the River 12-16 Links
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4. NPS Indians & Jamestown
A. Scholars believe the Indians would't have killed all of the settlers because it would have gone against their custom, especially if they were there to trade.
B. They may have thought the English would have been useful allies.
5. NY Times Article (PDF is the article)
7. History of Jamestown
There were 105, but one died on the way there before they ever got to Virginia.
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Blood on the River 17-20 Links
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15-16.Average age 17 and the age increased slightly for a while and then decreased in the 1950's and 1960's when it started to rise again.
The Age of Marriage, MEAN, Change in Age
Blood on the River 21-23 Links
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Blood on the River 24-Afterword Links
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8. In Shakespeare's lifetime Francis Drake sailed around the world. King James I becomes King of England.
9. If boys were "naughty" in Shakespeare's time the teacher would beat them.
10. Shakespeare dies in 1616
11. Shakespeare's helped write 38 plays.
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Samuel Collier is a poor orphan who lives in London England in 1606. Samual’s mother dies and he steels her locket back from a pawn shop. The pawn shop owners find him and retrieve the locket, he is arrested. Traitors who disobey the crown are killed, and the plan is for Samuel to be hung.
Samuel is saved by the magistrate and assigned to Reverend Hunt at the orphanage. He is very patient and calm. Samuel gets into a fight with Collin and Richard, two other boys in the orphanage. Reverend Hunt decides to bring the boys on a journey to the new world, the boys will be servants. Samuel will serve Captain John Smith, a commoner. They are going to the New World with a charter granted to the Virginia Company to establish a new colony will send resources back to England. There are three ships going on the expedition. Captain Gosnold is the captain of the Godspeed. Captain John Ratcliff is the captain of the Discovery and Captain Newport is the captain of the Susan Constant. Reverend Hunt and the boys will be on the Susan Constant. Captain Smith is mad about all the Gentleman going on the expedition. Sir Edward Wingfield is a high ranking gentleman with the Virginia Company.
Susan Constant is not the nicest place, especially the tween deck. They are anchored off the coast of England because of storms blowing the wrong direction. Gentleman want to return to England and Smith stands up to Wingfield. James is the 9 year old servant of George Percy. Reverend Hunt is very sick, but still calms the tensions. However, Wingfield will get back at Smith with his power.
Samuel nearly dies of the fever. They were finally sailing. They would make a big circle first stoping in the Canary Islands to the West Indies, and then to Jamestown. Samuel finally gets glimpses of the sea when he went on deck to dump the slop buckets. Captain Newport comes down to the tween deck and places John Smith under arrest for trying to murder the council, overthrow the mission and become ruler. Smith will be hanged when they reach the West Indies. Smith calms himself, but Samuel worries the Gentlemen will try to kill him.
Smith is chained, but somehow the whispers have changed and he seems to be winning the battle. People are starting to say that Wingfield made it all up. Smith is surprised to learn Samuel and his mother could read. When they arrive on in the islands they are greeted by Indians coming quickly towards their ships. John Smith comes to translate.
They anchor on Guadeloupe Island. They watch a swordfish take down a whale. Captain Smith makes the comparison the the Gentlemen and Commoners, saying that even the biggest fish in the sea can be taken down by those with more skill and perseverance. 1st time in 3 months all 3 ships have been together (105 men). Samuel still has a chip on his shoulder when he plays in the water with Richard and James. Ratcliffe insists on a path and in the process of making it many men are poised by the Manchineel tree. Smith is continuing to teach Samuel, but Samuel is stubborn. However, Smith is kind and helps Samuel. They still plan to hang Smith and are building the gallows.
Smith is chained to a tree and they plan to hang him. Reverend Hunt preaches about lies in an attempt to save Smith. Smith remains calm and knows that he is needed as a translator. Hunt convinces the men to release Smith and also convinces John Smith to be respectful to the Gentlemen. Edward Brooks dies of heat exhaustion because he would not remove his heavy “proper” clothing.
Storms are bad and conditions are miserable on the tween deck of the ship. People are sick and they are late arriving in Virginia. Samuel continues to be mean to James and Richard. Richard and Samuel get into a fight. Smith drags Samuel Away and makes him stand on 1 foot on the ship. He does this to teach him that in Virginia he must work with others because he can not survive on his own. He then chains Samuel. People have different motivations for why they are on the trip. Some want to find Gold, silk, and jewels, while others want to spread Christianity. They are attacked by Natives, one sailor is hit in the hands and another is shot in the stomach before the Indians leave.
James is upset by the attack. The men open the box containing the name of the leaders when they arrive in Virginia. Everyone is shocked to see Smith’s name on the list and say that he can not be a leader. 17 days after arriving they pick a place to establish their settlement. Everyone except the Gentleman work hard and they trade with the Indians for food. Captain Smith warns that the Indians will attack as he can tell when they come they are looking around suspiciously. Water is an issue because there has not been any rain, the water they do have is too salty.
Their camp is attacked by Indians, men are injured and James is killed in the attack.
Samuel feels guilty for James’s death. If he had been nicer maybe James would have listened to him. He also feels regret for how he treated James. The council has a meeting to discuss the Indians and decide to build a palisade. The Indians mount attacks on anyone who strays to far from their settlement. Several are killed. Samuel gets Master Clovell’s sword and armor when he is killed. Samuel is working for John Laydon as a carpenter and Captain Smith it teaching him how to use his sword.
Captain Smith does not bring Samuel a musket as he expected, rather he brought him a book that contained translations of the Algonquian Language. Smith explained they would be better protection than any musket. Captain Smith’s name is finally cleared. Captain Smith has finally be given the position that the Virginia Company gave to him as a member of the council. Captain Newport leaves to return to England. Days later a sickness falls upon Jamestown, many are dying. No one has the strength to hunt, fish, or tend to the garden and there is little to eat. There are many theories about why they are sick. Master Wingfield has been hoarding food and Henry and Abram told him if he did not share with them that they would tell everyone he has food. Samuel overhears them eating fresh eggs, they threaten him not to tell. Over half of the men are dead. Reverend Hunt is ill, and Samuel is worried that he will die.
Master Wingfield is no longer the president and is under arrest for not sharing food with the other colonists. Captain Smith has taken credit for discovering Master Wingfield’s stash. Captain Ratcliff is now the president. The river is less salty and the colonists are feeling better since being able to eat food. Samuel decides to try and befriend Richard. He decided to help Richard get armor since so many men have died. Native Americans come to the fort in peace, they come to trade. They explain some tribes are friendly and others are their enemies.
The colonists have gotten over their sickness and they are no longer hungry. The Native Americans that were their friends have talked to their enemy tribes and the colonists are safe for now. Captain Smith has been put in charge of trading with the tribes. Captain Newport has not returned, and the colonists are building houses. The colonists work hard, Captain Smith works the hardest. They are still trying to find a way to the Orient that bypasses the Turkish Empire by taking the shallop up the river. James and Richard are cooperating with each other. The Gentlemen and the others don’t do their part to keep their fires lit throughout the night. Captain Smith and 2 men went off and the men were captured by the Indians. Samuel has grown to care for Captain Smith and he is worried about him. They discover that much of their food has been taken.
The Gentlemen have taken the stores of food and are on the Discovery planning on leaving to go back to England. However, there is no wind, and without wind the Discovery will not be Abel to go anywhere. Just as Reverend Hunt prays for a miracle and just then, Captain Smith returns. He announces that Thomas Emery and Jehu Robinson have been killed by the Native Americans. Captain Smith gives the Powhatan people a cannon, which the colonists have been forbidden to do. Captain Smith gives his account of what happened to him when he was captured. He tells about how a young Native American girl saved his life just before he was about to be killed. Some of the Gentlemen grab Captain Smith and restrain him, they are charging him with the deaths of Emery and Robinson. Samuel throws a rock at the back of Master Archer’s head.
The men want to also harm Samuel, but Reverend Hunt intervenes. He takes Samuel to the chapel to pray for his temper. Samuel realizes that is Captain Smith is hung that he could become the servant of one of the gentlemen. Reverend Hunt tries to talk some sense into the men, but they do not listen. They are down from 105 men to less than 40 men. Captain Newport returns on the Susan Constant.
Captain Smith is freed. Master Archer is taken off the council. There are 60 new settlers, dogs, hogs, and chickens. They are greeted by Native Americans that bring them food. In addition, there is a Native American girl who is a princess that visits, she is about 10 years old and her name is Pocahontas. She refers to the settlers as her countrymen and tells them that the food is a gift from Chief Powhatan. They learn that the soil they sent back to England was just dirt and rocks, but the Virginia Company still wants gold. Men leave their cabins at night with their fire still burning when they left to go find gold and there is a fire that breaks out at Jamestown. It wipes out all of the homes and almost everything in them, including all of the food.
Samuel reflects on how he has changed since coming to Jamestown. He states that he knows that he has to trust and work with others. They have fallen on hard times with the burning of Jamestown, but despite the cold and devastation from the fire they realize they have friends with the Powhatan, as they bring them food for gifts and skins to keep them warm. However, death still plagues Jamestown with the bitter cold and digging graves once again becomes a part of Samuel’s daily jobs. Namontack a Native American boy is now living with them, he is about 14. Namontack teaches Samuel Algonquian and Reverend Hunt teaches Namontack about their religion. Namontack tells Samuel about how they are now a part of the Powhatan tribe after Captain Smith died as an Englishman and reborn or adopted as a Powhatan. Namontack confirms that Pocahontas was a part of the ritual and was chosen by Chief Powhatan to “save” Captain Smith as a part of the ritual. Namontack will go to England to see what it is like there. It is the summer of 1608 and they have rebuilt their homes and have a good relationship with the Native Americans. However, what they call the summer sickness falls upon Jamestown again. Ratcliff, decides that he needs a large house in the woods. When Captain Smith returns they tell him about how Ratcliff is hoarding food and the construction of the house, he is demoted from president. Captain John Smith is the new President.
Captain Smith is the new president. He decreed that all colonists must work if they want to eat. The newer settlers have great respect and trust for Captain Smith, although there are still Gentlemen that do not like him because they no longer hold all of the power and everyone is treated as equals. All colonists are given equal proportions. A British ship appears coming down the river, it has brought 70 new colonists including women. Ann Burras is among the women, she is the servant of Mrs. Forrest. Namontack is also on the ship as he has now returned from England, he and the boys compare notes about their different Gods. King James has ordered that they place a crown on Chief Powhatan’s head to signify that he is a prince and all of the natives are British subjects. Samuel is nervous about how Chief Powhatan will feel about this, and Captain Smith is furious. He knows that it is not going to go well if Captain Newport tries to crown Chief Powhatan as a prince, when he is a king in his land. All of the men are trying to get Ann’s attention. She gets to know Samuel and the other boys a little bit better and confides in them about her living conditions and how she is treated by Mrs. Forrest.
Captain Smith, Samuel, Namontack, and some of the others are preparing to go to Werowocomoco. Captain Smith makes sure that Samuel is wearing is armor and he too is wearing a lot of armor, it makes Samuel concerned for how big of a deal it is that they are trying to crown Chief Powhatan a prince. Samuel is relieved that Chief Powhatan is not at Werowocomoco. The colonists think they are under attack from the Native Americans, but Pocahontas assures them they are ok and will not be harmed. The Native Americans showed them a ritual dance and they eat a delicious meal. Samuel and the colonists stay at Werowocomoco that night. Samuel reflects and agrees with Namontack the their village and homes are better.
Powhatan refuses to come to James Town and gives Captain Smith 8 days to deliver the gifts to him. Captain Newport insists on going to the Indian village to make Powhatan a subject of King James I. Ann Burras marries John Laydon. Reverend Hunt gets sick and dies.
Chief Powhatan stops trading and giving food to the people of Jamestown. He is showing his power. The colonists have little food and to make matters worse Captain Newport leaves with more of their food, but also rids them of Captain Ratcliff. Samuel is left with the Warraskoyack Indians for the winter while Captain Smith keeps trying to trade with Powhatan. He thinks that they are the most wealthy people because they can eat whenever they want and nothing is rationed. He is taught how to avoid the insects, protect his skin from the sun, and hunt. There was a trap that was set for Captain Smith and his men, but they were not caught off guard. Pocahontas warned Captain Smith that the natives planned to kill them later that evening. They avoided the ambush and left when they could. Richard and the other boys go to find Samuel and he looks like an Indian, they tell him about the lack of food and Smith sent them different places to live off what was available.
In 1609 they get word that those who have gone to live with other tribes should return to Jamestown. No one is allowed to say anything bad about Jamestown so that new settlers will want to come to the new world. There is another ship that has returned with families and children. The Virginia is sending more and more colonists. There are 500 colonists at Jamestown now. There is a rush to build more homes. Captain Archer and Ratcliff are also back and make no secret that they want rid of Captain Smith. Sir Thomas Gates is appointed as the new Governor of Jamestown. The new colonists do not respect Captain Smith, nor do they listen to him. New colonists kill the Native Americans and burn their villages. Captain Smith and Samuel are enraged.
Somehow Captain John Smiths powder bag was lit and exploded. Captain Smith is badly injured. He knows that he is no longer able to make things better in the colony with Ratcliff back and the new settlers fully trusting Ratcliff. Captain John Smith decides to go back to England, and will take Richard its him. Samuel is released from his servitude and will stay with John and Ann Laydon. He will be John Laydon's apprentice. Ann Laydon is pregnant. The baby was born and they named the girl Virginia.
John Smith can walk a little with a cane and is going back to England for better medicine so he can heel better. Richard is going to go with him. Captain Smith gives Samuel new blue beads on a string that will help negotiate and trade for food. Samuel and Richard start talking before they leave and remembering the journey to Jamestown and how far their friendship has come. Now John Laydon and Samuel are being sent to build cabins at Fort Algernon, this is where the people are building on Point Comfort in case of a Spanish invasion. Samuel and Anne Laydon have an argument because Anne decides to stay at Jamestown with baby Virginia. Samuel reflects on conversations he has had with John Smith and Reverend Hunt and based on their past advice the decides to steal a baby.
Samuel succeeds in getting the baby to Point Comfort. Anne is furious and Samuel is restrained, he is not sure if he will be put to death or not. In the meantime, James Town is attacked, Captain Ratcliffe is tortured to death by the Indians, and most of the men who remain there are killed.
It is February, 1610, at Point Comfort. After hearing of Capt. Ratcliffe’s fate, Ann and John got the charges against Samuel dropped. He would have suffered 20 lashes had they not. They told everyone that Samuel had done the right thing. Samuel is now living happily in a cabin with Ann, John and baby Virginia. The settlers are warm and comfortable at Point Comfort. Samuel thinks he might smell smoke, and worries about the settlers in James Town. But he knows there is no sense in worrying, because he has his duties in Point Comfort.